Torsion Springs & Double Torsion Springs

  • .007 to .625 Inches In Spring Wire Diameter
  • Up to 2.0 Inches Bar Stock
  • Custom Torsion Spring End Options to Meet Your Needs
  • Round, Rectangular, Square & Special-Section Wire

Get a Torsion Spring Quote Try our Spring Calculator

Torsion Spring Manufacturing Specifications

While we have listed some of the most common sizes, materials and manufacturing specifications, Newcomb Spring provides completely customized production on all torsion springs.

Material Shapes & Sizes

  • .007 to .625 Inches in Wire Diameter
  • Up to 2.0 Inches Bar Stock
  • Round Wire
  • Square Wire
  • Rectangular Wire
  • Special Section Wire

Torsion Spring End Types

  • Bent
  • Hooked
  • Twisted
  • Looped to Suit Your Project Needs and Order Specification

Common Torsion Spring Materials

  • Spring Steel
  • High Carbon Steel
  • Low Carbon Steel
  • Nickel Plated Carbon Steel
  • Stainless Alloys
  • Non-Ferrous Metals
  • Elgiloy®
  • Hastelloy®
  • Monel®
  • Inconel®
  • Titanium
  • and More

Torsion Springs Information

Torsion Spring Winding

A torsion spring can be closed or open-wound and usually is designed to wind up. As a spring winds up, the coil diameter will decrease and the body length will increase. Read more on the direction of spring winding in our technical articles.

Spring Load

It is important to consider the direction of loading when designing bends or forms of a torsion spring's body or legs. Favorable residual stresses can be created when bends are loaded in a direction that reduces the radius or curvature.

Design of Torsion Springs

With new manufacturing techniques, torsion end positions can be held to surprisingly close tolerances. Older design free angle tolerances often do not apply. Newcomb is a torsion springs manufacturer with modern forming machinery and production techniques that allow for an infinite variety of torsion spring end shapes. When specifications call for very long spring legs, we recommend discussing your requirements with a Newcomb sales engineer. Our staff can verify manufacturing capabilities and will work to keep your production costs as low as possible.

Basic Design Formulas for Torsion Springs

Note: The constants 10.8 and 6.6 generate results close to actual versus other theoretical values.

Round Wire Rectangular Wire
(Wound on Flat)
Rectangular Wire
(Wound on Edge)
Square Wire
Ed4T / 10.8NtD
Ebt3T / 6.6NtD
Etb3T / 6.6NtD
Ed4T /6.6NtD
32M /πd3
6M / bt2
6M / tb2
6M / t3


D Mean Coil Diameter (in. or mm)
d Diameter of Round Wire (in. or mm.)
Nt Number of Coils
E Modulus of Elasticity (psi or MPa)
T Deflection, number of turns or revolutions of spring
M Moment or Torque (lbin or Nmm)
b Width (in. or mm)
t Thickness (in. or mm)
S Bending Stress*, (psi or MPa)

*(Typically the maximum design stress is 75% of the minimum tensile strength of the material.)

Torsion Spring Diagrams

Torsion springs are used to store rotational energy or to apply torque. It is always best to design torsion springs to wind up in use and to apply force in the direction of the wind – otherwise unfavorable bending stresses will occur. As a spring deflects in the direction of the wind, its diameter will decrease and its body length will increase. In these situations it is recommended that the torsion spring be supported on its inner diameter (I.D.) with a shaft or tube, sized so that there will be no binding due to deflection.

Torsion Spring Diagram
Torsion Spring Diagram

Double-torsion springs are a common type of torsion spring. They are made of a left hand component and a right hand component which are connected at the center. It is possible to have the two components connect at the outside edge, though this is not recommended. Most torsion springs are wound with the coils touching but with minimal initial tension. For these springs the body length can be calculated by multiplying the wire diameter by the number of coils, then adding one.

Below are just a small selection of the torsion spring and double torsion spring shapes we have produced, including:

  • Brush Springs
  • Clipboard Springs
  • Closer Springs
  • Double Torsion Springs
  • Extended Leg Torsion Spring
  • Hanger Springs
  • Hinge End Torsion Springs
  • Latch Springs
  • Tine Springs
  • Torsion Springs with Hook Ends
  • Torsion Springs with Cross Body Bends
spring gallery

Torsion Spring Manufacturer Gallery

As a custom torsion spring and double torsion spring manufacturer, Newcomb Spring can produce a wide variety of custom spring shapes, sizes and designs. Using material sizes from .007 to .625 inches in wire diameter, and up to 2.0 inches bar stock, all Newcomb parts are precision manufactured to meet even the strictest order requirements.

We produce a wide variety of spring shapes, designs, and a virtually unlimited variety of end types. With over a century of spring design and manufacturing experience, we can provide design assistance on your order, helping to lower production costs and review your part's fit and function.